BY SIAMAK O GORGEEN
THE GENESIS OF DESIGN IS HUMAN PROPORTION AND SCALE.
LE CARBUSIER DEVELOPED THE MODULAR CONCEPT, RANGE OF HARMONIOUS MEASURMENTS TO SUIT THE HUMAN SCALE.
VITRUVIAN MAN: Vitruvius the Roman architect in the first Center BC originated the discussion of perfect proportion in architecture and the human body led to the famous renaissance drawing of the Vitruvian Man by Leonardo Da Vinci
LEONARDO DA VINCI: Leonardo Da Vinci is renowned for his realistic representations of the human body. He drew this illustration of a precisely proportioned figure to accompany his notes on Vitruvius. This architect wrote in Roman times that the human body is the ideal architectural model because it fits, with arms and legs extended, into the perfect forms of both the square and the circle.
Siamak O Gorgeen’s Vitruvian Man and Woman as inspired by Vitruvius and Leonardo Da Vinci.
Le Carbusier, . Le Carbusier developed a new system, the Modulor, describing it as “ a range of harmonious measurements to suit the human scale, university applicable to architecture and to mechanical things “. The Modulor initially was based on a man’s height of 1.75 meters, and was changed to 1.83 meters in 1946.
Art in architecture
Architecture is a type of fine art, commonly known as the “high arts”. These fine arts have been regarded as the pinnacle of aesthetic expression for a long time. Integrating art into architecture is the equivalent of finding perfect harmony. The two are individually stunning, but when put together in a way that physically registers with those who inhabit the space is where the magic really happens. In a way, art in architecture is the ultimate aesthetic.
Art needs an appropriate built environment within which it can be showcased to greatest effect, while architecture needs art to turn bricks, steel and concrete into a space in which people want to live, to learn and to work. For thousands of years, buildings and spaces have been transformed by the way in which art was used within them – often resulting in a fusion which created spaces which were beautiful, awe-inspiring, or spiritually uplifting, depending on the intentions of the client and the architect.
The enhancement of creativity is a great influence of art on architecture. Art makes architects increase their creativity to meet the different models of art. As a result, they come up with new ways they can blend their structures with different artworks. This leads to the use of modern architectural models. The term architecture refers to the art and science of designing buildings. It is considered an art because architects use creativity, imagination, and aesthetics. Architecture is considered an art. More specifically, it can be categorized as fine and applied art.
Cubism developed in the aftermath of Pablo Picasso's shocking 1907 Les Demoiselles d'Avignon in a period of rapid experimentation between Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. Drawing upon Paul Cezanne’s emphasis on the underlying architecture of form, these artists used multiple vantage points to fracture images into geometric forms. Rather than modelled forms in an illusionistic space, figures were depicted as dynamic arrangements of volumes and planes where background and foreground merged. The movement was one of the most groundbreaking of the early-20th century as it challenged Renaissance depictions of space, leading almost directly to experiments with non-representation by many different artists. Artists working in the Cubist style went on to incorporate elements of collage and popular culture into their paintings and to experiment with sculpture.
Four important characteristics of Cubism are the application of multiple perspectives, the use of geometric shapes, a monochromatic color palette, and a flattened picture plane. Cubism's novel handling of form, color, and perspective signaled a shift from the existing conventions of European modernist painting. Instead of realism, Cubism takes real life,
deconstructs it, and interprets it from infinite angles through geometry and abstraction. The pioneering Cubists—Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque—saw the centuries of realist paintings as inadequate in depicting the three-dimensional world. Cubism developed in three phases: First there was the Cezanian Cubism, then came Analytical Cubism and finally there was Synthetic Cubism.
Cubism influence on architecture
How is art related to Architecture? Architecture is a hybrid of art, technology, and building, and art is a form of human expression that may be shared and interpreted. The association between architecture and art has often been a complementary collaboration. Cubism is an artistic movement which employs geometric shapes in depictions of humans and other forms. Over time, the geometric touches grew so intense that they sometimes overtook the represented forms, creating a more pure level of visual abstraction.
Most often the connections between cubist painting and modern architecture were construed analogically, by reference to shared formal qualities such as fragmentation, spatial ambiguity, transparency, and multiplicity; or to techniques used in other media such as film, poetry, and photomontage. Architectural interest in Cubism centered on the dissolution and reconstitution of three-dimensional form, using simple geometric shapes, juxtaposed without the illusions of classical perspective. This modern movement was also influential in contemporary architecture. Cubist houses are recognized by having many geometric lines, sharp edges and many facades with fantastic perspectives from different angles. Even the colors used in the house designs are monochrome or very limited. Cubism opened up almost infinite new possibilities for the treatment of visual reality in art and architecture and was the starting point for many later abstract styles including constructivism and neo-plasticism.
“Let us together create the new building of future, which will be everything in one form: architecture, sculpture and paining” Walter Gropius.
Gropius vision for Bauhaus was for the union of art and design in the utopian craft guild combining architecture, sculpture, and painting into a single creative expression. The Bauhaus combined elements of both fine arts and design. The study of materials, color theory, and their formal relationships in preparation for more specialized studies by visual artists, including Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, and Josef Albers, among others hence facilitating the unification of all arts.
Marcel Breuer reconceived the very essence of furniture, often seeking to dematerialize conventional forms such as chairs to their minimal existence. designers such as Marianne Brandt, Wilhelm Wagenfeld , and Christian Dell created beautiful, modern items such as lighting fixtures and tableware. Moholy-Nagy emphasized on industrial forms which was designed with careful attention to functionality and ease of use.
Paul Klee, he wrote, "Color has taken possession of me; no longer do I have to chase after it, I know that it has hold of me forever... Color and I are one. I am a painter." With that realization, faithfulness to nature faded in importance. Instead, Klee began to delve into the "cool romanticism of abstraction".
One of the most durable influences of the Bauhaus school is its color theory, which was taught under four prominent artists: Johannes Itten, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, and Josef Albers. Color theory refers to the science and art of using color in art and design.
Color theory is the collection of rules and guidelines which designers use to communicate with users through appealing color schemes in visual interfaces. To pick the best colors every time, designers use a color wheel and refer to extensive collected knowledge about human optical ability, psychology, culture and ........
What is Bauhaus color theory?
The farther apart the hues, the greater the contrast. For example, bright yellow and purple contrast more than yellow and green or yellow and orange. Second was light and dark contrast, when tints or shades are placed next to an extreme opposite.
Paul Klee was truly fascinated by color and was a well-known artist for his striking depictions of the human face, his abstract (and somewhat cubist artworks) and his great influence on German Expressionism.
All artists use color in some way: it is an important medium in which they work. However, color for Klee was something of an obsession.
He studied it and theorized about it, and the fruits of these studies can be seen in his artworks as he applied his reasoning to his artistic practice.
Paul Klee's color theory
Paul Klee spoke in some of his published works about the 'tiresomeness' of having 'too much white' in a painting. As such, he developed a theory of colors that was intended to help artists to use color as effectively as possible.
Klee writes about the importance of using complementary colors to balance each other out, and the 'difficulty' of integrating the bold, fiery tones of yellow and violet together into an artwork.
This is because, Klee argued, yellow and violet are the two most different colors in the whole color spectrum. To help artists to find colors that complement each other, Klee developed a color wheel which can be used as a cross referencing tool. These theories can be found in Klee's work 'Pedagogical Sketchbook'.